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 Power Electronic. In 40 Lessons.

Another IIT course material from Kharagpur, covers Power Electronic, 
3 Phase AC, MOSFET and more.. Great reference for Electrical 
engineering students or for manufacture engineer..


Module 1 Power Semiconductor Devices. 

Lesson 1 Power Electronics, objectives: Create an awareness 
of the general nature of Power electronic equipment; ~ Brief idea 
about topics of study involved, ~ The key features of the principal 
Power Electronic Devices; ~ An idea about which device to choose 
for a particular application. ~ A few issues like base drive and 
protection of PE devices and equipment common to most varieties.. 
contents: [ How is Power electronics distinct from linear electronics? 
~ Power Semiconductor device - history ~ Power Diodes ~ Silicon 
Controlled Rectifier (SCR) ~ MOSFET ~ The IGBT ~ The GTO ~ Power 
Converter Topologies ~ Base / gate drive circuit ~ Protection of Power 
devices and converters ] 

Lesson 2 Constructional Features, Operating Principle, Characteristics 
and Specification of Power Semiconductor Diode, objectives: Draw the 
spatial distribution of charge density, electric field and electric potential 
in a step junction p-n diode. ~ Calculate the voltage drop across a forward 
biased diode for a given forward current and vice-verse. ~ Identify the 
constructional features that distinguish a power diode from a signal level 
diode. ~ Differentiate between different reverse voltage ratings found in a 
Power Diode speciation sheet. ~ Identify the difference between the 
forward characteristic of a power diode and a signal level diode and 
explain it. ~ Evaluate the forward current specifications of a diode for 
a given application. ~ Draw the “Turn On” and “Turn Off” characteristics 
of a power diode. ~ Define “Forward recovery voltage”, “Reverse recovery 
current” “Reverse Recovery charge” as applicable to a power diode.. 
contents: [ Review of Basic p-n Diode Characteristics ~ Construction 
and Characteristics of Power Diodes ~ Power Diode under Reverse 
Bias Conditions ~ Power Diode under Forward Bias Condition ~ Switching 
Characteristics of Power Diodes ] 

Lesson 3 Power Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), objectives: Distinguish 
between, cut off, active, and saturation region operation of a Bipolar 
Junction Transistor. ~ Draw the input and output characteristics of a junction 
transistor and explain their nature. ~ List the salient constructional features 
of a power BJT and explain their importance. ~ Draw the output 
characteristics of a Power BJT and explain the applicable operating limits 
under Forward and Reverse bias conditions. ~ Interpret manufacturer’s 
data sheet ratings for a Power BJT. ~ Differentiate between the 
characteristics of an ideal switch and a BJT. ~ Draw and explain the 
Turn On characteristics of a BJT. ~ Draw and explain the Turn Off 
characteristics of a BJT. ~ Calculate switching and conduction losses 
of a Power BJT. ~ Design a BJT base drive circuit.. contents: [ Basic 
Operating Principle of a Bipolar Junction Transistor ~ Constructional 
Features of a Power BJT ~ Output i-v characteristics of a Power Transistor 
~ Switching characteristics of a Power Transistor ~ Turn On characteristics 
of a Power Transistor ~ Turn Off Characteristics of a Power Transistor ~ 
Switching Trajectory and Switching Losses in a Power Transistor ~ Base 
Drive Design and Power Darlington ] 

Lesson 4 Thyristors and Triacs, objectives: Explain the operating principle 
of a thyristor in terms of the “two transistor analogy”. ~ Draw and explain 
the i-v characteristics of a thyristor. ~ Draw and explain the gate 
characteristics of a thyristor. ~ Interpret data sheet rating of a thyristor. 
~ Draw and explain the switching characteristics of a thyristor. ~ Explain 
the operating principle of a Triac.. contents: [ Constructional Features 
of a Thyristor ~ Basic operating principle of a thyristor ~ Steady State 
Characteristics of a Thyristor ~ Thyristor ratings ~ Switching Characteristics 
of a Thyristor ~ The Triac ~ Steady State Output Characteristics and Ratings 
of a Triac ~ Triac Switching and gate trigger circuit ] 

Lesson 5 Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO), objectives: Differentiate between 
the constructional features of a GTO and a Thyristor. ~ Explain the turn off 
mechanism of a GTO. ~ Differentiate between the steady state output and 
gate characteristics of a GTO and a thyristor. ~ Draw and explain the 
switching characteristics of a GTO. ~ Draw the block diagram of a GTO 
gate drive unit and explain the functions of different blocks. ~ Interpret the 
manufacturer’s data sheet of a GTO.. contents: [ Constructional Features 
of a GTO ~ Operating principle of a GTO ~ Steady state and dynamic 
characteristics of a GTO ~ Dynamic characteristics of a GTO ~ GTO gate 
drive circuit ~ GTO Ratings ~ Specifications related to the switching 
performance ] 

Lesson 6 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET), 
objectives: Differentiate between the conduction mechanism of a MOSFET 
and a BJT. ~ Explain the salient constructional features of a MOSFET. ~ 
Draw the output i-v characteristics of a MOSFET and explain it in terms 
of the operating principle of the device. ~ Explain the difference between 
the safe operating area of a MOSFET and a BJT. ~ Draw the switching 
characteristics of a MOSFET and explain it. ~ Design the gate drive 
circuit of a MOSFET. ~ Interpret the manufacturer’s data sheet rating of 
a MOSFET.. contents: [ Constructional Features of a Power MOSFET ~ 
Operating principle of a MOSFET ~ Steady state output i-v characteristics 
of a MOSFET ~ Switching characteristics of a MOSFET ~ Circuit models 
of a MOSFET cell ~ Switching waveforms ~ MOSFET Gate Drive ~ 
MOSFET Ratings ] 

Lesson 7 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), objectives: Differentiate 
between the constructional features of an IGBT and a MOSFET. ~ Draw 
the operational equivalent circuit of an IGBT and explain its operating 
principle in terms of the schematic construction and the operational 
equivalent circuit. ~ Draw and explain the steady state output and transfer 
characteristics of an IGBT. ~ Draw the switching characteristics of an IGBT 
and identify its differences with that of a MOSFET. ~ Design a basic gate 
drive circuit for an IGBT. ~ Interpret the manufacturer’s date sheet of an 
IGBT.. contents: [ Constructional Features of an IGBT ~ Operating principle 
of an IGBT ~ Steady state characteristics of an IGBT ~ Switching 
characteristics of IGBT ~ IGBT ratings and safe operating area ] 

Lesson 8 Hard and Soft Switching of Power Semiconductors, objectives: 
To highlight the issues related to device stresses under Hard switching; ~ 
To suggest means of reducing such stresses with external circuitry; ~ To 
propose alternative switching methods for stress reduction; ~ Enable the 
choice of the appropriate switching strategy. contents: [ Soft and Hard 
Switching ~ Losses in Power Semiconductors ~ Conduction Losses ~ 
Blocking Losses ~ Switching Losses ~ Diode ~ Soft switching ] 

Module 2 AC to DC Converters 

Lesson 9 Single Phase Uncontrolled Rectifier, objectives: Classify the 
rectifiers based on their number of phases and the type of devices used. ~ 
Define and calculate the characteristic parameters of the voltage and current 
waveforms. ~ Analyze the operation of single phase uncontrolled half wave 
and full wave rectifiers supplying resistive, inductive, capacitive and back 
emf type loads. ~ Calculate the characteristic parameters of the input/output 
voltage/current waveforms associated with single phase uncontrolled rectifiers.. 
contents: [ Terminologies ~ Single phase uncontrolled half wave rectifier ~ 
Single phase uncontrolled full wave rectifier ~ Split supply single phase 
uncontrolled full wave rectifier. ~ Single phase uncontrolled full bridge rectifier ] 

Lesson 10 Single Phase Fully Controlled Rectifier, objectives: Differentiate 
between the constructional and operation features of uncontrolled and 
controlled converters ~ Draw the waveforms and calculate their average 
and RMS values of different variables associated with a single phase fully 
controlled half wave converter. ~ Explain the operating principle of a single 
phase fully controlled bridge converter. ~ Identify the mode of operation of 
the converter (continuous or discontinuous) for a given load parameters and 
firing angle. ~ Analyze the converter operation in both continuous and 
discontinuous conduction mode and there by find out the average and RMS 
values of input/output, voltage/currents. ~ Explain the operation of the converter 
in the inverter mode.. contents: [ Single phase fully controlled halfwave rectifier 
~ Single phase fully controlled bridge converter ~ Operation in the continuous 
conduction mode ~ Operation in the discontinuous conduction mode ~ Inverter 
Mode of operation ] 

Lesson 11 Single Phase Half Controlled Bridge Converter, objectives: Draw 
different topologies of single phase half controlled converter. ~ Identify the design 
implications of each topology. ~ Construct the conduction table and thereby draw 
the waveforms of different system variables in the continuous conduction mode 
of operation of the converter. ~ Analyze the operation of the converter in the 
continuous conduction mode to find out the average and RMS values of 
different system variables. ~ Find out an analytical condition for continuous 
conduction relating the load parameters with the firing angle. ~ Analyze the 
operation of the converter in the discontinuous conduction mode of operation.. 
contents: [ Operating principle of a single phase half controlled bridge converter 
~ Single phase half controlled converter in the continuous conduction mode ~ 
Single phase half controlled converter in the discontinuous conduction mode. ] 

Lesson 12 Single Phase Uncontrolled Rectifier, objectives: Draw the conduction 
table and waveforms of a three phase half wave uncontrolled converter supplying 
resistive and resistive inductive loads. ~ Calculate the average and RMS values 
of the input / output current and voltage waveforms of a three phase uncontrolled 
half wave converter. ~ Analyze the operation of a three phase full wave 
uncontrolled converter to find out the input / output current and voltage 
waveforms along with their RMS and Average values. ~ Find out the harmonic 
components in the input / output voltage and current waveforms of a three 
phase uncontrolled full wave converter. ~ Analyze the operation of a three 
phase full wave uncontrolled converter supplying a Capacitive - Resistive load.. 
contents: [ Operating principle of three phase half wave uncontrolled rectifier ~ 
Three phase full wave uncontrolled converter ~ Operation of a 3 phase full wave 
uncontrolled bridge rectifier supplying an R - L - E load ~ Operation of a three 
phase uncontrolled bridge rectifier supplying a capacitive load ] 

Lesson 13 Operation and Analysis of the Three Phase Fully Controlled Bridge 
Converter, objectives: Draw the circuit diagram and waveforms associated with 
a three phase fully controlled bridge converter. ~ Find out the average, RMS 
valves and the harmonic spectrum of the output voltage / current waveforms 
of the converter. ~ Find out the closed form expression of the output current 
and hence the condition for continuous conduction. ~ Find out the displacement 
factor, distortion factor and the power factor of the input current as well as its 
harmonic spectrum. ~ Analyze the operation of higher pulse number converters 
and dual converter. ~ Design the triggering circuit of the three phase fully 
controlled bridge converter.. contents: [ Operating principle of 3 phase fully 
controlled bridge converter ~ Analysis of the converter in the rectifier mode ~ 
Analysis of the converter in the inverting mode. ~ Higher pulse number converters 
and dual converter ~ Gate Drive circuit for three phase fully controlled converter] 

Lesson 14 Operation and Analysis of Three Phase Half Controlled Converter, 
objectives: Draw the circuit diagram and waveforms of different variables associated 
with a three phase half controlled converter. ~ Identify the constructional and 
operational difference between a three phase fully controlled and half controlled 
converter. ~ Calculate the average and RMS value of the output dc voltage. ~ 
Calculate the displacement factor, distortion factor and power factor of the input 
ac line current. ~ Calculate the Fourier series components of the output voltage 
and input current waveforms. ~ Derive the closed form expression for output dc 
current and hence identify continuous or discontinuous conduction mode of the 
converter.. contents: [ Operating principle of three phase half controlled converter 
~ Analysis of three phase half controlled converters ] 

Lesson 15 Effect of Source Inductance on the Performance of AC to DC 
Converters, objectives: Draw the voltage and current waveforms associated 
with a converter taking into account the effect of source inductance. ~ Find the 
average output voltage of the converter as a function of the firing angle and 
overlap angle. ~ Estimate overlap angles under a given operating condition and 
hence determine the turn off time available for the thyristors. ~ Draw the dc 
equivalent circuit of a converter and parameterize it. ~ Find out the voltage stress 
on the thyristors due to commutation overlap.. contents: [ Single phase fully 
controlled converter with source inductance ~ Three phase fully controlled converter 
with source inductance ] 

Lesson 16 Power Factor Improvement, Harmonic Reduction, Filter, objectives: 
Schemes for the improvement of power factor in AC-DC converters. ~ Methods 
for harmonic reduction in the current waveforms of the converters. ~ Types of f
ilters used to obtain ripple free (dc) output voltage and currents, reducing the 
harmonics.. contents: [ Power Factor Improvement ~ Extinction Angle Control 
~ Symmetrical Angle Control ~ Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Control ~ Sinusoidal 
Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) Control ~ Low Pass (L-C) Filter ~ Two Stage 
Filter ~ Harmonic Reduction ~ Active Shaping of Input (line) Current ] 

Module 3 DC to DC Converters 

Lesson 17 Types of Basic DC-DC Converters, objectives: Three basic types of 
dc-dc converter circuits - buck, boost and buck-boost ~ The expressions for the 
output voltage in the above circuits, with inductive (R-L) and battery (or back emf = E) 
load. contents: [ DC-DC Converters ~ Buck Converters (dc-dc) ~ Boost Converters 
(dc-dc) ~ Buck-Boost Converters (dc-dc) ~ Control Strategies ~ Time-ratio Control ~ 
Constant Frequency Operation ~ Variable Frequency Operation ~ Current Limit 
Control ] 

Lesson 18 Analysis of Buck Converter (DC-DC) Circuit, objectives: Derivation of 
the expressions for the maximum and minimum load currents ~ Calculation of the 
following: the duty ratio for the limit for continuous conduction, the average value 
and the ripple factor of the load current, the harmonic components of the output 
voltage waveform. contents: [ Buck Converter (DC-DC) ~ Maximum and Minimum 
Values of the Load Current ~ The Duty Ratio (k) for the Limit of Continuous 
Conduction ~ The Average Value of the Output Current ~ Fourier Analysis of the 
Output Voltage Waveform ] 

Lesson 19 Commutation of Thyristor-Based Circuits Part-I, objectives: 
Requirements to be satisfied for the successful turn-off of a SCR ~ The turn-off 
groups as per the General Electric classification ~ The operation of the turn-off 
circuits ~ Design of a SCR commutation circuit. contents: [ Classification of 
forced commutation methods ~ Class A, Self commutated by resonating the load 
~ Class B, Self commutated by an L-C circuit ~ Class C, C or L-C switched by 
another load-carrying SCR ~ Class D, L-C or C switched by an auxiliary SCR ~ 
Class E - External pulse source for commutation ~ Class F, AC line commutated 
~ Rate of rise of forward voltage, dv/dt ] 

Lesson 20 Commutation of Thyristor-Based Circuits Part-II, objectives: Practical 
significance of commutation ~ Limitations of line commutation ~ Ability to 
determine commutation interval ~ Insight to different methods of commutation 
~ Consequences of the commutating methods on device stresses. contents: 
[ Commutation in PAC ~ Input voltage waveform distortion ~ Three-phase 
converters ~ Commutation in DC-DC Choppers ~ Practice Problems with 
Answers and Questions ] 

Lesson 21 Introduction to Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS) Circuits, 
objectives: Identify the basic elements in a regulated power supply ~ Explain 
the basic principle of operation of linear and switched mode power supplies ~ 
Compare the merits and demerits of SMPS vis-Ã -vis linear power supplies ~ 
Interpret Power supply specifications. contents: [ Introduction to regulated dc 
power supplies ~ Linear regulated power supply ~ Switched Mode Power 
Supply (SMPS) ~ SMPS versus linear power supply ~ Hybrid (SMPS followed 
by linear) power supply ~ Multiple output SMPS ~ Resonant Mode Power 
Supplies ] 

Lesson 22 Fly-Back Type Switched Mode Power Supply, objectives: Identify 
the topology of a fly-back type switched mode power supply circuit. ~ Explain 
the principle of operation of fly-back SMPS circuit. ~ Calculate the ratings of 
devices and components used in fly-back converter for the specified input 
and output voltages and for the required output power. ~ Design a simple 
fly-back converter circuit.. contents: [ Basic Topology of Fly-Back Converter 
~ Circuit Equations Under Continuous-Flux Operation ~ Circuit Equations 
Under Discontinuous-Flux Mode ~ Continuous Versus Discontinuous Flux Mode 
of Operation ~ A Practical Fly-Back Converter ] 

Lesson 23 Forward Type Switched Mode Power Supply, objectives: Identify 
the topology of a forward type switched mode power supply circuit. ~ Explain 
the principle of operation of a forward dc-to-dc power supply. ~ Calculate the 
ratings of devices, components, transformer turns ratio for the given input and 
output voltages and the required output power. ~ Design a simple forward type 
switched mode power supply circuit.. contents: [ Practical Topology of A Forward 
Converter Circuit ~ Selection of Transformer Turns Ratio ~ Selection of Filter 
Circuit Inductor and Capacitor ] 

Lesson 24 C uK and Sepic Converter, objectives: Compare the advantages 
and disadvantages of ??CuKand Sepic converters with those of three basic 
converters. ~ Draw the circuit diagrams and identify the operating modes 
of ??CuKand Sepic converters. ~ Draw the waveforms of the circuit variables 
associated with ??CuKand Sepic converters. ~ Calculate the capacitor voltage 
ripples and inductor current ripples in ??CuKconverter.. contents: [ Analysis of C 
uK converter ~ Expression for average output voltage and inductor currents ~ 
Current ripple and voltage ripple calculations ~ The SEPIC Converter ] 

Lesson 25 Design of Transformer for Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) 
Circuits, objectives: Explain the underlying principles behind the design of a 
high frequency transformer and inductor. ~ Do a preliminary design of a high 
frequency transformer for some popular configurations of SMPS circuits. ~ Do 
a preliminary design of a high frequency inductor. ~ Estimate the size of an 
SMPS transformer of some given VA rating.. contents: [ Recapitulation of 
Governing Equations for Utility Transformer ~ Derivation of Design Equations for 
SMPS Transformer ~ Transformer with Square-Wave Voltage and Bipolar Flux ~ 
Transformer with Unipolar Flux ~ Design of Inductor-Transformer ~ Transformer 
Winding ] 

Module 4 AC to AC Voltage Converters 

Lesson 26 AC to AC Voltage Converters, objectives: AC-AC power conversion 
topologies at fixed frequency ~ Power converter options available for the 
conversion ~ Ability to formulate equations describing the current waveform 
for the PAC ~ Ability sketch the current waveform by observation of the circuit 
~ Ability to assess the performance of the converter of the topologies. 
contents: [ Operation with resistive loads ~ Power Factor ~ Operation with 
inductive loads ~ AC-AC Chopper ~ PAC as a static switch ] 

Lesson 27 Three-phase AC Regulators, objectives: The circuits used for the 
three-phase ac regulators (ac to ac voltage converters) ~ The operation of 
the above circuits with three-phase balanced resistive (R) load, along with 
the waveforms ~ The important points of comparison of the performance with 
different types of circuits. contents: [ Three-phase AC Regulators ~ Three-phase 
Delta-connected AC Regulator with Balanced Resistive Load ~ Comparison of 
the Different Circuits used for Three-phase AC Regulators ] 

Lesson 28 Phase Angle Control in Triac-based Single-phase AC Regulators, 
objectives: The circuit used for the phase angle control in triac-based single-phase 
ac regulators (ac to ac voltage converters) ~ The operation of the various blocks 
used in the circuit, along with the waveforms ~ The harmonic analysis of the 
output voltage of a single-phase ac regulator with resistive load. contents: [ Phase 
Angle Controller Circuit for Triac-based Single-phase AC Regulator ~ TRIAC ~ 
DIAC ~ Harmonic Analysis of the Output Voltage Waveform ~ ] 

Lesson 29 Introduction to Cyclo-converters, objectives: The cyclo-converter 
circuits - basic principle of operation ~ The circuit for the single-phase to 
single-phase cyclo-converter using thyristors ~ The operation of the above 
cyclo-converter circuit, along with the voltage waveforms. contents: 
[ Cyclo-converter Basic Principle of Operation ~ Single-phase to Single-phase 
Cyclo-converter ~ Discontinuous load current ~ Continuous load current ~ 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cyclo-converter ~ Advantages and 
Disadvantages of DC Link Converter ] 

Lesson 30 Three-phase to Single-phase Cyclo-converters, objectives: The 
three-phase to single-phase cyclo-converter circuit, using two three-phase 
full-wave thyristorised bridge converters ~ The operation of the above 
cyclo-converter circuit, along with the voltage waveforms. contents: 
[ Three-phase to Single-phase Cyclo-converter ~ Circulating Current Mode 
of Operation ~ Cyclo-converter, using two three-phase half-wave 
converters ] 

Lesson 31 Three-phase to Three-phase Cyclo-converters, objectives: 
The three-phase to three-phase cyclo-converter circuit, using six three-phase 
half-wave thyristorised converters ~ The operation of the above 
cyclo-converter circuit ~ The analysis of the cyclo-converter output 
waveform. contents: [ Three-phase to Three-phase Cyclo-converter ~ 
Analysis of the Cyclo-converter Output Waveform ] 

Lesson 32 Control Circuit for Three-phase to Three-phase Cyclo-converters, 
objectives: The control circuits used for the three-phase to three-phase 
cyclo-converters using two three-phase converters, to generate the firing 
pulses for the thyristors ~ The functional blocks, including the circuit and 
waveforms. contents: [ Control Circuit for Cyclo-converters ~ Synchronising 
Circuit ~ Reference Voltage Sources ~ Logic and Triggering Circuit ~ 
Circuit for Converter Group Selection ] 

Module 5 DC to AC Converters 

Lesson 33 Introduction to Voltage Source Inverters, objectives: Identify 
the essential components of a voltage source inverter. ~ Explain the 
principle behind dc to ac conversion. ~ Identify the basic topology of 
single-phase and three-phase inverters and explain its principle of 
operation. ~ Explain the gate drive circuit requirements of inverter switches.. 
contents: [ How to Get AC Output From DC Input Supply? ~ What If The 
Load Is Not Resistive? ~ General Structure of Voltage Source Inverters ~ 
Need For Isolated Gate-Control Signals For The Switches ~ Classification 
of Voltage Source Inverters ] 

Lesson 34 Analysis of 1-Phase, Square - Wave Voltage Source Inverter, 
objectives: Explain the operating principle of a single-phase square wave 
inverter. ~ Compare the performance of single-phase half-bridge and 
full-bridge inverters. ~ Do harmonic analysis of load voltage and load 
current output by a single-phase inverter. ~ Decide on voltage and current 
ratings of inverter switches.. contents: [ Harmonic Analysis of The Load 
Voltage And Load Current Waveforms ~ Time Domain Analysis ~ 
Frequency Domain Analysis ~ Analysis Of The Single-Phase Full Bridge 
Inverter ~ Voltage And Current Ratings Of Inverter Switches ~ Applications 
Of Square Wave Inverter ] 

Lesson 35 3-Phase Voltage Source Inverter With Square Wave Output, 
objectives: Explain the operating principle of a three-phase square wave 
inverter. ~ Understand the limitations and advantages of square-wave 
inverters. ~ Do harmonic analysis of load voltage and load current output 
by the three-phase sq. wave inverter. ~ Decide on voltage and current 
ratings of inverter switches.. contents: [ Determination Of Load 
Phase-Voltages ~ Harmonic Analysis Of Load Voltage Waveforms ~ Voltage 
And Current Ratings Of Inverter Switches ~ Use And Limitations Of 3-Phase 
Square Wave Inverter ] 

Lesson 36 3-Phase Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverter, objectives: 
Explain the philosophy behind PWM inverters. ~ Understand the advantages 
and disadvantages of PWM inverters. ~ Compare the quality of output voltage 
produced by different PWM inverters ~ Decide on voltage and current ratings 
of inverter switches.. contents: [ Nature Of Pole Voltage Waveforms Output 
By PWM Inverters ~ Harmonic Analysis Of Pole Voltage Waveform ~ Trade 
Off Between Low Order And High Order Harmonics ~ Brief Description Of 
Some Popular PWM Techniques ~ Two-Level Versus Three-Level PWM 
Inverters ~ Considerations On Switch Voltage And Current Ratings ] 

Lesson 37 Sine PWM and its Realization, objectives: Explain the concept 
of sine-modulated PWM inverter ~ Design a simple controller for the sine-PWM 
inverter ~ Calculate output voltage magnitude from the inverter operating 
parameters ~ Compare sine-modulated PWM inverter with square wave inverter. 
contents: [ Analysis Of The Pole Voltage Waveform With A Dc Modulating 
Signal ~ Pole Voltage Waveform With Sinusoidal Modulating Signal ~ What 
Is Modulation Index? ~ What Is Over-Modulation? ~ A 1-Phase Sine-PWM 
Inverter Of H-Bridge Topology ~ Generation Of 3-Phase Sine-PWM Waveform 
~ A Typical Circuit For Generation Of PWM Waveforms ] 

Lesson 38 Other Popular PWM Techniques, objectives: Explain the concept 
of sine+3rd harmonic modulated PWM inverter ~ Explain Space-Vector based 
PWM (SVPWM) technique ~ Estimate output voltage of the inverter using 
above PWM techniques ~ Compare at least five different PWM techniques 
for a 3-phase inverter. contents: [ How To Get More Output Voltage From 
The Same DC Bus Voltage? ~ Sine + 3rd Harmonic PWM Technique ~ Space 
Vector PWM (SV-PWM) Technique ~ Smoothly Rotating Space Voltage Vector 
From Inverter ~ Algorithm For Producing Sinusoidal Output Voltages Using 
SV-PWM ~ Some Other Popular PWM Techniques ~ Selective Harmonic 
Elimination Technique ~ Current Controlled PWM (CCPWM) Technique ] 

Lesson 39 Current Source Inverter, objectives: The circuit for single-phase 
Current Source Inverter (CSI) using thyristors ~ Auto-Sequential Commutated 
mode of operation for 1-ph. Inverter (ASCI), with waveforms ~ Three-phase 
Current Source Inverter (CSI) - circuit and operation, with waveforms. contents: 
[ Single-phase Current Source Inverter ~ Three-phase Current Source Inverter ] 

Lesson 40 Load-commutated Current Source Inverter (CSI), objectives: Study 
of the circuit and operation for Load-commutated Current Source Inverter (CSI). 
contents: [ Load-Commutated CSI ]

Do Enjoy.